Steroid hormones second messenger system

Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. [45]

Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.

There are possible estrogenic side effects of Nandrolone despite it not being a very estrogenic hormone, at least not directly. Nandrolone does aromatize slightly. Aromatization refers to the conversion of testosterone to estrogen . This takes place when the testosterone hormone interacts with the aromatase enzyme. When the conversion takes place this can cause estrogen levels to go up, which can promote gynecomastia and water retention. High blood pressure can also become an issue if water retention becomes severe. Along with the low level of aromatase activity Nandrolone is also a progestin and has a strong binding affinity for the progesterone receptor. This may stimulate the mammary tissue and enhance the risk of gynecomastia in sensitive individuals.

Combating the estrogenic side effects of Nandrolone can be achieved by the use of anti-estrogen medications, specifically Aromatase Inhibitors (AI’s) such as Anastrozole ( Arimidex ). Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERM’s) are also sometimes used, such as Tamoxifen ( Nolvadex ). However, AI’s are the proper choice as they will directly reduce serum estrogen levels and SERM’s will not. An AI should be enough to reduce and avoid gynecomastia unless the individual already has existing gynecomastia that could potentially be exasperated.

Important Note: It’s often been said that Nandrolone based gynecomastia is based on increases in prolactin. It is true that 19-nor steroids can increase prolactin, which can also negatively affect libido and erection function. Some men may need to use a dopamine agonist to combat this. However, it is not prolactin that causes 19-nor based gynecomastia but rather the imbalance between estrogen and progesterone. If you merely combat prolactin you may find yourself with the very gynecomastia you tried to avoid.
 

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Steroid hormones second messenger system

steroid hormones second messenger system

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Media:

steroid hormones second messenger systemsteroid hormones second messenger systemsteroid hormones second messenger systemsteroid hormones second messenger systemsteroid hormones second messenger system

http://buy-steroids.org