A recent review by the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) also identified no adverse health effects with gadolinium retention in the brain, but that Committee recommended suspending the marketing authorization of certain linear GBCAs because they cause a greater retention of gadolinium in the brain compared to macrocyclic GBCAs. The Committee’s recommendation is currently undergoing an appeal, which will be further reviewed by the PRAC and subsequently by the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. 18
Food preservatives are meant to improve food safety and that is why laws authorized their use, in limited amounts though, barring the most harmful preservatives. In general, preservatives limit, retard or arrest the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, fungi, mould, present in or that may enter into the food. Thus, food preservatives prevent spoilage or toxicity and increase shelf-life of the food products. However, the side effects of food preservatives can be felt with inadequate usage and extreme consumption of some harmful food preservatives that have been described in the following list.
It is not clear what sort of risk the possibility of conferring antibiotic resistance to bacteria presents. No one has ever observed bacteria incorporating new DNA from the digestive system under controlled laboratory conditions. The two types of antibiotic resistance genes used by biotechnologists are ones that already exist in bacteria in nature so the process would not introduce new antibiotic resistance to bacteria. Never the less it is a concern and the FDA is encouraging biotechnologists to phase out the practice of using antibiotic resistance genes (GEO-PIE website).